PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 42

FORMULATION

Top: Pulses are successfully paired with
animal-based proteins in formulations to
boost the nutrition, fiber and sustainability
of the final product.
Nestlé Purina

Peas are highly attractive as a pet food
ingredient because of their functional processing attributes, antioxidant properties,
wide availability and low cost to processors.
American Pet Nutrition

42

says Gary Davenport, companion animal
technical manager, ADM Animal Nutrition,
a division of Archer Daniels Midland
Company (ADM), Chicago. "While cats
do have some ability to use plant-based
ingredients, the long-term feeding of a strict
vegan food is not biologically appropriate for cats due to their specific nutritional
needs. Vegan cat owners should not mimic
their personal dietary choices when selecting a cat food if they are concerned with
the long-term health and wellness of their
feline companion."
Patrick Luchsinger, manager, marketing and business development, pet food,
Ingredion Inc., Westchester, Illinois, says,
"Plant material is more difficult [than animal protein] to break down, so conversely
herbivores have much longer intestines.
Dogs, on the other hand, have an intestinal
length just slightly longer than the cat."
That does not mean more plant-based
ingredients cannot be included in a cat's
diet, especially if the food is properly fortified. Plant-based proteins may be used
in combination with animal proteins to
achieve a highly palatable, high-protein
food or treat for both cats and dogs.
"Pulses have a 50-plus year history in the
pet food world, helping to provide many
pets with a healthy and well-balanced diet
when included in properly formulated
food," says Tim McGreevy, chief executive officer, American Pulse Association,
Moscow, Idaho. "The addition of pulses to
pet foods has added a plant-based source
of nutrition that is packed with protein,
fiber, vitamins and minerals. To top it off,
they are a sustainable crop, which makes
them better for the planet."
"The nutritional content and physical
characteristics from one pulse crop to another can slightly differ within a narrow
range," McGreevy says. "Combining the
different pulses can complement their individual nutritional profiles to help meet
nutritional needs. Although there are
some nutritional differences among pulse
crops, the ingredients provided to formulators are constant, stable and measurable."
"In general, pulses are versatile and serve
as a flavor sponge, so they comfortably fit
into formulations across the spectrum,"

PET FOOD PROCESSING | September 2019 | www.petfoodprocessing.net

he adds. "They serve as a perfect solution for a plant-based protein source in
vegetarian or vegan diets, but also create
a perfect pairing with animal-based proteins in formulations and are successfully
integrated into both. No matter the diet or
flavor profile, pulses boost nutrition, fiber
and sustainability of the final product."
Something that must be considered when
formulating pulses into pet foods is the presence of anti-nutrients, which are natural
compounds produced by plants to protect
their seeds from animal consumption. They
earned the name anti-nutrient because they
can interfere with absorption of nutrients
needed for an animal - including humans
- to maintain optimal health.
Most anti-nutrients are present in the
hull, skin or coat of plant seeds. There are
different types of anti-nutrients that can
disrupt the digestion and absorption of different nutrients. Phytates, for example, are
compounds that bind minerals, preventing
their absorption by the body. Carnivores
cannot break down phytates because they
lack the enzyme phytase. Other anti-nutrients present in pulses include tannins, as
well as protease, lipase and amylase inhibitors, the latter being compounds that prevent enzymes from respectively breaking
down proteins, fats and carbohydrates for
proper digestion and nutrient absorption.
The good news is that "anti-nutritional
factors in pulses are largely addressed with
cooking and processing, such as extrusion," Marinangeli says.

Focusing on protein

The rise in grain-free diets places the
focus on protein. Therefore, protein quality must be considered. This includes protein content, amino acid composition and
protein digestibility.
"In each of the pulse crops there are
varying levels of the different amino acids,"
McGreevy says. "The level of these compounds, as well as other nutrients, in each
pet food or treat will really depend on the
formulation of the product."
Luchsinger adds, "Pulses may not be
completely utilized for swapping out animal proteins due to pet owner preference
to have animal protein sources as the first


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PET Food Processing - September 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of PET Food Processing - September 2019

PET Food Processing - September 2019
CONTENTS
OFF THE LEASH - JOINT EFFORT
TRENDS - COMPLIANCE retooling
PLANT PROFILE - FREEZING IN TEXAS
FOOD SAFETY - Navigating FSMA inspections
REGULATORY - it's time
FEATURE EVENT - COLD KIBBLE
INGREDIENTS - BOOSTING the appeal
FORMULATION - THE PULSE ON PULSES
UNDERSTANDING DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY
EQUIPMENT - CUTTING them down to size
EQUIPMENT - NO STRINGS ATTACHED
OPERATIONS - improved EFFICIENCIES
PACKAGING - ADEPT AT ADAPTING
BEST IN SHOW
PATENTS TO PONDER
EVENTS
SIT, STAY, READ
AD INDEX
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - PET Food Processing - September 2019
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - PET Food Processing - September 2019
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 2
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 3
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 4
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - CONTENTS
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - OFF THE LEASH - JOINT EFFORT
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 7
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 8
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - TRENDS - COMPLIANCE retooling
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 10
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 11
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 12
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 13
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - PLANT PROFILE - FREEZING IN TEXAS
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 15
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 16
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 17
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 18
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 19
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 20
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 21
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 22
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - FOOD SAFETY - Navigating FSMA inspections
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 24
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 25
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 26
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 27
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 28
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - REGULATORY - it's time
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 30
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 31
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - FEATURE EVENT - COLD KIBBLE
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 33
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - INGREDIENTS - BOOSTING the appeal
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 35
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 36
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 37
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 38
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 39
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 40
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - FORMULATION - THE PULSE ON PULSES
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 42
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 43
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - UNDERSTANDING DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 45
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 46
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - EQUIPMENT - CUTTING them down to size
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 48
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 49
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 50
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 51
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 52
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - EQUIPMENT - NO STRINGS ATTACHED
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 54
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 55
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 56
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - OPERATIONS - improved EFFICIENCIES
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 58
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 59
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 60
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - PACKAGING - ADEPT AT ADAPTING
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 62
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 63
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 64
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 65
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 66
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 67
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - BEST IN SHOW
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 69
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 70
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - PATENTS TO PONDER
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - EVENTS
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - SIT, STAY, READ
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - AD INDEX
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 75
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 76
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2020_10_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2020_09_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2020_06_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2020_03_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2019_12_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2019_10_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2019_09_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2019_06_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2019_03_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2018_12_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2018_09_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2018_06_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2018_03_01
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