PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 44

UNDERSTANDING

FORMULATION

DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY
because two of the amino acids, methionine and cysteine,
are limiting. However, formulators can blend pea protein
with a complementary protein source, such as rice, chickpea, soy or pumpkin. Rice is a common option as it has
higher levels of methionine and cysteine to complement
the pea protein."
Like many grains, pulses are a source of carbohydrates, which are necessary in product formulating.
The added bonus is they are a much more concentrated
source of protein and, in many instances, fiber as well.
"Pulses contribute fiber and resistant starch, which provide benefits for the digestive system," Adolphe says.
"Peas also contain compounds known for their antioxidant properties, which may protect against various diseases, such as cancer."
This makes them powerhouse ingredients in the eyes
of a formulator. Varied formats are available, such as
whole, ground and starch. This assists with developing
targeted textures, such as crunchy, chewy or even stewlike for wet applications. "When producing pet food
through extrusion, carbohydrates are one of the most
important functional ingredients needed to give kibble
its shape, texture and density," Adolphe says. "They have
excellent binding and expanding capacity to hold kibble
together and create its desired texture. Without the use
of carbohydrates, it is very difficult to produce a wellformed kibble."
Pulses also provide simple, understandable ingredient
declarations and may function similarly to more highly
processed ingredients, including animal by-products
and modified binders. "Beyond nutrients, amino acids
and protein, pulses also deliver certain functionalities
that benefit the shape, reduce breakage, and improve the
chewiness or firmness of the end product," Luchsinger explains. "It is notable to mention that ingredients aren't as
effective if they're not blended with other ingredients that
make the meal as nutritious and digestible as possible.
"The future of pulses in the pet food industry is bright
as pulses bring many nutritional benefits such as protein
enrichment and amino acid content," Luchsinger says.
"Many pet food and treat manufacturers are looking to
fortify their products with protein and replace corn, soy
and wheat with novel flours to differentiate their products with label claims like non-GMO, gluten-free, made
in the USA and sustainably sourced."
"They provide functional benefits such as thickening,
gelling, fat binding and helping to keep a consistent and
uniform structure and shape in the application," he concludes. "Pet food formulators realize that a larger variety
of ingredients in the pet food formulation will provide
more for the animal than a very limited formulation and
pulse ingredients can help provide ingredient options
for them."
PFP

44

PET FOOD PROCESSING | September 2019 | www.petfoodprocessing.net

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the
heart's muscle tissue and is associated with lack
of the amino acid taurine. Cats lack the ability to
synthesize taurine, which is why they must receive
adequate taurine through the diet. Some breeds
of dogs, including American cocker spaniels,
golden retrievers and Newfoundland dogs, may
be genetically predisposed to DCM, which is why
taurine supplementation is often recommended.
Taurine is found primarily in meat and is completely
absent in cereal grains.
In July 2018, the US Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) warned about a possible
relationship between DCM in dogs and the
consumption of dog food formulated with pulses
and potatoes as the primary ingredients. This
raised concerns among pet food formulators and
their suppliers, as pulse ingredients have long
been recognized as a valuable source of protein to
complement animal-based ingredients.
In response to the FDA, animal nutrition science
professors from universities in Canada and the
US, along with recognized industry experts, came
together to review the literature on this topic. They
wrote "The association between pulse ingredients
and canine dilated cardiomyopathy: addressing the
knowledge gaps before establishing causation,"
which was published in the Journal of Animal
Science in March 2019. In the report, the authors
emphasized that individual ingredients used in
commercial foods do not represent the final nutrient
concentration of the complete diet. Nutritionists
formulating dog food must balance complementary
ingredients to fulfill the animal's nutrient needs
in the final diet. There are multiple factors that
should be considered, including differences in
nutrient digestibility and overall bioavailability, the
fermentability and quantity of fiber, and interactions
among food constituents that can increase the risk of
DCM development.
The authors concluded that the relationship
between pulses and canine DCM remains
undefined. They recognize the important role of
dietary taurine for the prevention of DCM in some
dogs. They also recognize the need for adequate
intake of essential sulfur amino acids, namely
methionine and cysteine, which allow dogs to
synthesize taurine.
Pulses are low in these two amino acids;
however, most grains contain high concentrations.
When pulses and grains are both in the diet, they
complement each other to provide the essential
amino acids necessary for dogs to produce taurine.
Grain-free diets may lack methionine and cysteine.
Additional dietary factors and animal factors, such
as breed, size and health status, should also be
investigated when nutrient deficiency-related DCM
is suspected. Overall, there's insufficient data to
correlate grain-free diets with DCM in dogs.


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PET Food Processing - September 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of PET Food Processing - September 2019

PET Food Processing - September 2019
CONTENTS
OFF THE LEASH - JOINT EFFORT
TRENDS - COMPLIANCE retooling
PLANT PROFILE - FREEZING IN TEXAS
FOOD SAFETY - Navigating FSMA inspections
REGULATORY - it's time
FEATURE EVENT - COLD KIBBLE
INGREDIENTS - BOOSTING the appeal
FORMULATION - THE PULSE ON PULSES
UNDERSTANDING DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY
EQUIPMENT - CUTTING them down to size
EQUIPMENT - NO STRINGS ATTACHED
OPERATIONS - improved EFFICIENCIES
PACKAGING - ADEPT AT ADAPTING
BEST IN SHOW
PATENTS TO PONDER
EVENTS
SIT, STAY, READ
AD INDEX
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - PET Food Processing - September 2019
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - PET Food Processing - September 2019
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 2
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 3
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 4
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - CONTENTS
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - OFF THE LEASH - JOINT EFFORT
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 7
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 8
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - TRENDS - COMPLIANCE retooling
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 10
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 11
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 12
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 13
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - PLANT PROFILE - FREEZING IN TEXAS
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 15
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 16
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 17
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 18
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 19
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 20
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 21
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 22
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - FOOD SAFETY - Navigating FSMA inspections
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 24
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 25
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 26
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 27
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 28
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - REGULATORY - it's time
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 30
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 31
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - FEATURE EVENT - COLD KIBBLE
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 33
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - INGREDIENTS - BOOSTING the appeal
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 35
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 36
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 37
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 38
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 39
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 40
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - FORMULATION - THE PULSE ON PULSES
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 42
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 43
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - UNDERSTANDING DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 45
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 46
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - EQUIPMENT - CUTTING them down to size
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 48
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 49
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 50
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 51
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 52
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - EQUIPMENT - NO STRINGS ATTACHED
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 54
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 55
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 56
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - OPERATIONS - improved EFFICIENCIES
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 58
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 59
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 60
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - PACKAGING - ADEPT AT ADAPTING
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 62
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 63
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 64
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 65
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 66
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 67
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - BEST IN SHOW
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 69
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 70
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - PATENTS TO PONDER
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - EVENTS
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - SIT, STAY, READ
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - AD INDEX
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 75
PET Food Processing - September 2019 - 76
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2020_10_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2020_09_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2020_06_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2020_03_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2019_12_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2019_10_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2019_09_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2019_06_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2019_03_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2018_12_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2018_09_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2018_06_01
http://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2018_03_01
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