PET Food Processing - June 2021 - 42

FORMULATION
product can affect these because of surface area, product
porosity, and ability to retain fat. "
Starches, gums and oils
In many cases, achieving optimal texture is a balancing act.
In a kibble manufacturing process, high-starch ingredients
are key in determining the final texture, density and shape
of a product, McCarthy said. Bartley added the process impact
on texture is " much more acute " for dry pet food and
treats, " because the texturizing process is much faster than
in wet foods or baked products. "
" Dry pet foods need to have low water activity for maxiWhen
formulating
for texture,
processors must
consider any ingredient
restrictions or
labeling requirements,
equipment
and processing
attributes, and how
the ingredients and
processes affect
one another.
ADM
mal shelf-life and freshness, which typically equates to
harder products, " explained Robert Mason, senior applications
scientist, Balchem Animal Health and Nutrition, New
Hampton, N.Y. " Starches, pre-gelatinized starches and proteins
are some macro ingredients that are typically used to
add hardness. "
Raw materials can also influence a final product's texture.
" Courser ground ingredients will provide a rougher
texture in the finished product and may give a more natural
appearance, " said Kent Cooper, co-owner, Evolve
Consulting Group, Fremont, Neb. " Conversely, finer
ground raw materials will provide a clean, consistent finished
product look from run to run. "
Moisture content and temperature affect how starch is
cooked, " which thus affects the product texture, " according
to Ellis Liu, technical manager, Ingredion's pet food segment.
In order for the starch to gelatinize, higher temperatures
may be needed during processing. The form of gelati " Understanding
the
different effects of
processes on texture
is key to finding the
right balance between
integrity and texture. "
Joel Bartley, IsoNova Technologies, LLC
nized starch is dependent on equipment factors, Liu added,
including shear, pressure and throughput, all of which can
also affect the texture of the final product.
" Ingredion's ingredient solutions for texture include
starches, flours, sweeteners, prebiotic fibers and plant proteins, "
Luchsinger said. " Our ingredients come from many
different bases such as potato, rice, tapioca, pea, lentil,
chickpea, guar and many others that all have different functionalities
to address texture. "
Fiberstar's citrus fiber ingredient, Citri-Fi, can tightly
bind large quantities of fats and oils for extrusion applications,
ingredients which can otherwise hinder the processes
of mixing and shearing that occur inside the extruder.
This ingredient is upcycled from byproducts of the citrus
juicing industry, meeting natural, sustainable and cleanlabel
product specifications on top of its binding and emulsification
abilities.
" The total starch level and ratio of amylose and amylopectin
can affect water-holding capacity, gelatinization,
dough expansion, viscosity and final density, " McCarthy
explained. " Balancing the ratio of amylose and amylopectin
supports maximum kibble expansion to ensure structural
integrity while minimizing fines. Protein and fat can also
influence dough expansion, which impacts product density
and texture. "
Mason pointed out some processors will inject air or water
vapor during production to stimulate dough expansion
and increase porosity, while others use a chemical-based
leavening process to more efficiently achieve this.
" In food systems, this is commonly done with ingredients
like baking powder, but pet systems can be more
challenging with higher usage of organic acids and protein
meals, " he said.
Balchem offers a range of encapsulated sodium bicarbonates
to help processors control gas formation during
production, yielding increased porosity. It also provides encapsulated
acidulants that can be used in conjunction with
sodium bicarbonates to facilitate leavening processes.
Semi-moist pet food and treat products require
starches or gums to maintain the product's softness over
42 PET FOOD PROCESSING | June 2021 | www.petfoodprocessing.net
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PET Food Processing - June 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of PET Food Processing - June 2021

PET Food Processing - June 2021 - Intro
PET Food Processing - June 2021 - 1
PET Food Processing - June 2021 - 2
PET Food Processing - June 2021 - 3
PET Food Processing - June 2021 - 4
PET Food Processing - June 2021 - 5
PET Food Processing - June 2021 - 6
PET Food Processing - June 2021 - 7
PET Food Processing - June 2021 - 8
PET Food Processing - June 2021 - 9
PET Food Processing - June 2021 - 10
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