PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 38

FORMULATION

Because most
vitamin concentrations are reduced
during processing
and throughout shelf
life, pet food manufacturers may have
to over-formulate
to ensure the final
product is properly
supplemented by the
time it reaches the
pet's bowl.
Trouw Nutrition

metabolism and immune system functioning properly.
Trace minerals are supplemented in companion animal diets in small amounts and contribute to several
metabolic and immune functions, including energy metabolism, skin and coat quality, growth and development, reproductive performance, joint and bone integrity, paw pad condition and overall health and wellness.
"Trace minerals are like the key to a car or truck,"
Tomlinson explains. "They're not a very big part of it,
but it's very difficult to make a car go without the key."
Zinc, for instance plays an important role in more than
300 enzyme systems and is essential for more than 3,000
protein systems in the body.
There are two major forms of minerals: inorganic and
organic. Inorganic minerals tend to be higher in concentration than organic minerals and cheaper to purchase.
Organic minerals, however, are often more expensive
but more bioavailable to an animal.

"If not properly balanced,
one nutrient can limit the
absorption of another,
such as iron and copper."
Trevor Faber, Ph.D., Trouw Nutrition

"Historically, there's always a combination of inorganic
versus organic," says Brent Kirn, companion animal account manager, North America at Zinpro. "The rule was
typically 25 to 30% of your mineral needs to come from
organic." This ratio is less about bioefficacy and more
about cost-effectiveness, Kirn explains. Organic minerals
are more natural, and therefore more recognized by a pet's
digestive system and more readily absorbed, he says.
"As we begin to formulate closer to what their natural diet is, what we find is that 100% organic is actually

38

PET FOOD PROCESSING | December 2019 | www.petfoodprocessing.net

closer to what their natural diet would be," Tomlinson
says. "So, what we have done or continue to do [use of
inorganics] from a cost standpoint is not necessarily in
the best interest from a bioefficacy standpoint for the
companion animal."
Organic minerals tend to be less reactive than inorganic sources through processing and shelf life, Kirn
says, because they are tightly bonded to a carbon ligand.
Strong bonds with a carbon molecule offer a few benefits. "These additional bonds improve stability and help
keep the mineral bound to its preformed ligand longer,
preserving its availability to be absorbed if needed," says
Trevor Faber, Ph.D., companion animal nutritionist for
Trouw Nutrition, Highland, Illinois.
Absorption is the key to this equation, which is why
both the form and source of a mineral are very important. A nutrient is essentially useless to an animal if it is
unable to be absorbed, causing deficiency and resulting
in declines in immune, enzyme and reproductive functions, according to Zinpro. To further complicate things,
some trace minerals compete for absorption sites. "If not
properly balanced, one nutrient can limit the absorption of another, such as iron and copper," Faber says.
"Nutritionists need to have an understanding of nutrient
interactions and ensure their formulations provide the
best opportunity for nutritional success."

Vitamins
Vitamins aid in everything from vision to blood coagulation, providing antioxidant functions and assisting with
the absorption of other nutrients such as minerals. They
come in two major forms: fat-soluble and water-soluble.
Fat-soluble vitamins, which include vitamins A, D,
E and K, are stored in the body already, which means
supplementation must be done carefully over a period
of time as not to cause toxicity in the animal, Clark says.
Water-soluble vitamins include C and B-complex and
require consistent replenishment because they are not
readily stored in the body. Vitamin C is not essential for
dog and cat diets, according to Clark. However, B-complex


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PET Food Processing - December 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of PET Food Processing - December 2019

PET Food Processing - December 2019
CONTENTS
OFF THE LEASH - Telling stories
TRENDS - Cold is HOT
PLANT PROFILE - AGGRESSIVELY GROWING
FOOD SAFETY - TEST and verify
INGREDIENTS - FOCUSED ON THE FACTS
FORMULATION - Balanced for BIOEFFICACY
EQUIPMENT - HANDLE with care
Harnessing HEAT
OPERATIONS - Starting Fresh
PACKAGING - Can do WITHOUT?
BEST IN SHOW
PATENTS TO PONDER
FEATURE EVENT - LUCKY 13th
EVENTS
AD INDEX
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - PET Food Processing - December 2019
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - PET Food Processing - December 2019
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 2
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 3
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 4
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - CONTENTS
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - OFF THE LEASH - Telling stories
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 7
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 8
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - TRENDS - Cold is HOT
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 10
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 11
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 12
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 13
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - PLANT PROFILE - AGGRESSIVELY GROWING
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 15
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 16
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 17
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 18
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 19
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 20
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 21
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 22
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - FOOD SAFETY - TEST and verify
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 24
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 25
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 26
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 27
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 28
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - INGREDIENTS - FOCUSED ON THE FACTS
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 30
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 31
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 32
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 33
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 34
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 35
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 36
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - FORMULATION - Balanced for BIOEFFICACY
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 38
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 39
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 40
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 41
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 42
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - EQUIPMENT - HANDLE with care
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 44
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 45
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 46
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 47
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 48
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - Harnessing HEAT
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 50
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 51
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 52
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 53
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 54
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - OPERATIONS - Starting Fresh
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 56
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 57
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 58
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 59
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 60
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - PACKAGING - Can do WITHOUT?
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 62
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 63
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 64
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 65
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - BEST IN SHOW
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 67
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - PATENTS TO PONDER
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 69
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 70
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - FEATURE EVENT - LUCKY 13th
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - EVENTS
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 73
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - AD INDEX
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 75
PET Food Processing - December 2019 - 76
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