PET Food Processing - March 2022 - 34

INGREDIENTS
colon
Higher levels of resistant starch could benefit colonic health in
pets, but there are currently process limitations for achieving this.
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stability, purge control and texture, " said Conor Sullivan,
senior technical services specialist, Cargill, Minneapolis.
" For example, a starch can help with the texture and
structure development of a wet extruded pet treat, resulting
in improved chew time. "
Pulses,
small intestine
tubers and cereal ingredients all contain
starch. Some of the most common starch ingredients
used in pet food formulations come from corn, potato,
tapioca, rice and peas, but researchers are looking at new
ways to incorporate starch through ancient grains and
other pulse ingredients.
Choosing wisely
According to Sullivan, there are two main categories of
starch ingredients used in pet food and treat formulations
- native starches and modified starches - and
each lends itself to different processing functionalities
and product demands.
Native starches come from botanical sources, including
from corn, tapioca and potato. Depending on the
starch, these ingredients offer different characteristics
for viscosity and gelling, but pose limitations for heat,
acid and shear stability, Sullivan said.
" When starch contents
are inadequate,
extrusion may fail. "
Patrick Luchsinger, Ingredion Incorporated
Enter modified starches. Modified starches have been
chemically enhanced to improve processing functionality
and formulation, including for shelf-life stability, texture,
tolerance to heat, acid and shear, and freeze/thaw
stability. They are ideal for wet pet food products or dry
extruded treats, Sullivan explained, due to the high heat,
acid and shear stability requirements of extrusion and
retort processes.
" There are many types of starches and choosing the
one that will give you the results you want can be challenging
as there are many bases and starch technologies
to choose from, including cross linked, substituted, pregelatinized,
acid-thinned, dextrinized, enzyme converted,
OSA modified and physical, " Luchsinger said.
For dry pet food applications, starches can be used to
achieve kibble expansion, density and texture, as well
as help bind other ingredients in the formula. Injection
34 PET FOOD PROCESSING | March 2022 | www.petfoodprocessing.net
IMPROVING NUTRITION
Current research points to an opportunity for
starch ingredients to benefit colonic health
in pets. Total starch in a pet diet can be
measured on two fronts: digestible starch
and resistant starch. Digestible starch passes
through the pet's small intestine, while
resistant starch escapes the small intestine
to be fermented in the colon. This resistant
starch can offer prebiotic benefits to support
colonic health.
" Recent research has suggested positive
difference in colonic fermentation as well as
reduction of the glycemic index by resistant
starch in pet food, " Luchsinger explained.
" These lead to improved nutritional absorption
and reduction of obesity and diabetes. "
Greg Aldrich, Ph.D., research associate
professor and pet food program coordinator
at Manhattan, Kan.-based Kansas State
University, and Isabella Corsato Alvarenga,
a Ph.D. candidate at Kansas State studying
grain science with an emphasis on pet food
processing and nutrition, published a study
in Translational Animal Science in early
2020 to analyze resistant starch levels of
commercial dry dog and cat food formulas.
They found all diets contained low resistant
starch levels - near or less than 1% - which
is not considered a sufficient concentration to
benefit colonic health in pets.
" Thus, new processing technologies may
be needed, or the addition of a resistant
starch ingredient in formulas may be required
to achieve the amount of resistant starch
that is associated with the positive benefits, "
Luchsinger added. " The challenge to
resistant starches is that the ingredient must
survive the extrusion or retort processes and
conditions. This would be an area of interest
in future pet food research. "
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PET Food Processing - March 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of PET Food Processing - March 2022

PET Food Processing - March 2022 - Intro
PET Food Processing - March 2022 - 1
PET Food Processing - March 2022 - 2
PET Food Processing - March 2022 - 3
PET Food Processing - March 2022 - 4
PET Food Processing - March 2022 - 5
PET Food Processing - March 2022 - 6
PET Food Processing - March 2022 - 7
PET Food Processing - March 2022 - 8
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https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2020_12_01
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https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2018_12_01
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