PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 38

FORMULATION
The main cause of rancidity is
oxidative deterioration of unsaturated
fatty acids by a free-radical chain
process known as auto-oxidation. It occurs in
Top: Product quality
degradation must
be addressed from
the moment certain
ingredients such as
meat-based
raw materials are
initially processed.
Circle: A freeze-dried
product requires
precise processing
parameters to sufficiently
inhibit bacteria
for the expected life
of the product.
Sosland Publishing Co.
three stages, with the first being the initiation. It is here
where molecular oxygen combines with unsaturated
fatty acids, producing hydroperoxides and peroxyl free
radicals, both of which are highly reactive and unstable.
The second stage is called propagation and occurs when
these unstable byproducts of the first stage react with
other lipids. This starts a chain reaction, with the reaction
supplying its own accelerant.
At this point there is no turning back for the fat, as
it is in a continuous cyclical oxidative degradation process
that ends at the final stage, which is aptly known as
termination. The cycle will cease, however, when an antioxidant
enters the scenario. But at this point, any degradation
that has occurred is permanent. The fat cannot
repair itself. If objectionable flavors and odors have developed,
they will remain.
" The higher the lipid content in the product, the
higher the risk for oxidative deterioration, " said Mary
Joe Fernandez, global vice president of sales and business
development, Layn Natural
Ingredients,
Irvine,
Calif. " Heat processed, non-refrigerated products are
most susceptible, while frozen or canned products are
less so. Cold slows down the chemical processes that unleash
oxidative reactions. "
Mann said, " In canned foods, oxidation reactions can
lead to color changes in food over time, leading to inconsistent
appearance that can be perceived as a quality
issue. Oxidation is a complex issue and can be managed
through good understanding of the challenges and potential
solutions. "
High temperature, light, water, metal ions and biological
catalysts can accelerate the reaction. Further, the
presence and placement of unsaturated fatty acids on
the fat molecule influences the rate of degradation; thus,
fat selection comes into play when taking steps to delay
degradation. In general, the more polyunsaturated fatty
acids on a fat molecule, the faster it will go rancid. This
is due to the unstable double bonds that participate in
the various degradation processes.
38 PET FOOD PROCESSING | September 2021 | www.petfoodprocessing.net
" Lipid oxidation issues are most prevalent in dry pet
food products, " said Namal Senanayake, scientific manager,
Camlin Fine Sciences, Urbandale, Iowa. " The dry
foods manufacturing process - extrusion, baking, etc.
- is expected to offer products with extended shelf life
when stored in factory sealed bags. However, after opening
for day-to-day use by the pet owner, various environmental
factors may affect the physical and chemical
properties of kibbles, especially when they are handled
improperly or stored under perilous conditions.
" The addition of antioxidants is vital to control for the
oxidative deterioration of lipids and preserve essential
nutrients, " Senanayake said.
Slowing down auto-oxidation
The most common approach to hinder lipid auto-oxidation
is to include antioxidants in the formulation. This is
often done at the ingredient level, with suppliers adding
antioxidants to the fat or oil to slow the chain reaction
from getting past the initiation stage. For extra protection,
antioxidants may be sprayed on the surface of the
product prior to packaging.
" The type of fat used, such as polyunsaturated fats
in vegetable oil or saturated fats from beef tallow and
chicken fat, and the properties of these fats and oils
will determine how susceptible they are to oxidation, "
McCarthy said. " There's not a one-size-fits-all solution;
different antioxidants work better for different applications.
And when a product formulation changes, the antioxidant
profile might have to be adjusted accordingly. "
Traditional synthetic antioxidants are very effective,
easy to use and low cost. But being chemically derived,
which is obvious by their names - i.e., ethylene diamine
tetra acetic acid (EDTA), tertiary butyl hydroquinone
(TBHQ), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated
hydroxytoluene (BHT) - are undesirable in today's
clean-label environment.
In response, pet food manufacturers are embracing
clean-label antioxidants that can be discreetly added to
product formulations. Common options are classified as
tocopherols, also known as vitamin E, and high-phenolic
plant extracts, such as those sourced from rosemary,
green tea and acerola.
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PET Food Processing - September 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of PET Food Processing - September 2021

PET Food Processing - September 2021 - Intro
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 1
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 2
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 3
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 4
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 5
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 6
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 7
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 8
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 9
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 10
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 11
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 12
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 13
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 14
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 15
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 16
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 17
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 18
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 19
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 20
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 21
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 22
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 23
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 24
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 25
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 26
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 27
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 28
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 29
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 30
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 31
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 32
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PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 34
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 35
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PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 37
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 38
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 39
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 40
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 41
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 42
PET Food Processing - September 2021 - 43
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https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/pet-food-processing-september-2021
https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/pet-food-processing-june-2021
https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/pet-food-processing-march-2021
https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2020_12_01
https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2020_10_01
https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2020_09_01
https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2020_06_01
https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2020_03_01
https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2019_12_01
https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2019_10_01
https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2019_09_01
https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2019_06_01
https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2019_03_01
https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2018_12_01
https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2018_09_01
https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2018_06_01
https://digital.petfoodprocessing.net/sosland/pfp/2018_03_01
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